Solved structures are normally deposited within the Protein Data Bank (PDB), a freely available useful resource from which structural knowledge about thousands of proteins may be obtained in the type of Cartesian coordinates for each atom within the protein. The development of such tools has been pushed by the big amount of genomic and proteomic data obtainable for a wide range of organisms, including the human genome. It is simply unimaginable to check all proteins experimentally, therefore just a few are subjected to laboratory experiments whereas computational tools are used to extrapolate to similar proteins. Such homologous proteins could be efficiently recognized in distantly associated organisms by sequence alignment.

Membrane proteins contain internal channels that permit such molecules to enter and exit the cell. Many ion channel proteins are specialised to select for less than a selected ion; for instance, potassium and sodium channels typically discriminate for only one of … Read More